He was the King of Mactan Island and was known as the
first Filipino hero. When Ferdinand Magellan,
a Spaniard who "discovered" the Philippines, landed in Cebu,
he ordered Filipinos to honor the king of Spain. Chief Lapu-Lapu
refused his demand. Magellan, along with 48 soldiers,
met Lapu-Lapu in Mactan Island for a battle. During
the battle, Magellan and 15 of his men were killed.
For 54 years thereafter, no Spaniard set foot on the Philippine
our national hero, was born in Calamba, Laguna. His
parents were Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora
Alonso. He was educated in Europe and obtained his license
in opthamology and philiosphy in France. He wrote Noli
Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The
Rebel) in Europe, which told about the oppression of Spanish
colonial rule. In 1892, when Rizal returned to the Philippines,
he formed La Liga Filipina, a forum for Filipinos to
express their hopes for reform and freedom from the oppressive
Spanish colonial administration. He was arrested as a revolutionary
and was exiled in Dapitan, Mindanao. His writings and
La Liga Filipina were banned. Later, he was imprisoned in
Fort Santiago, Manila after a trial. On December
30, 1896, he was executed by a firing squad at Bagumbayan,
now known as Luneta, in Manila for spreading ideals
He is remembered as the "Hero of Tirad Pass" and to
the Americans as an "Officer and a Gentleman."
Pilar, at 24, was the youngest general in the Revolutionary
Army, who fought bravely against the Americans, with only
60 men. On December 2, 1899, he was killed in the Tirad
Pass while commanding Aguinaldo's rearguard. Before
his death, he wrote, "I am surrounded by fearful odds that
will overcome me and my gallant men, but I am pleased to die
fighting for my beloved country." The Tirad Pass has
been declared a national shrine.
He established the newspaper, Diaryong Tagalog, which published
criticisms on the way the Spaniards ran the government and treated
its people. In Spain, he became editor of La Solidaridad
founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena. For six years, he wrote
articles on the theme of liberty and equality for the Filipinos.
Copies were smuggled into the Philippines in Tagalog and were
read by the revolutionists. On July 4, 1896, he died of
tuberculosis in Barcelona, a pauper, away from his family.
He is the founder the Katipunan, a secret organization
aimed to overthrow Spanish sovereignty in the Philippines.
Its full name was Kataastaasan Kagalanggalangang Katipunan
ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respected Association
of the Sons of the Country), and was known by its intitials
K.K.K. Bonifacio is also known as the "Great
Plebian." He and Emilio Jacinto issued stirring literature
to arouse people to revolt against the Spaniards. On
August 23, 1896, Bonifacio assembled his men at Balintawak,
tore their cedulas (poll tax), and declared the start of rebellion.
However, a conflict of leadership developed between he and
Emilio Aguinaldo, who was leading the struggle in his
home province of Cavite. After this power struggle, on May
10, 1897, Bonifacio was shot and killed in Cavite.
She is a famous heroine in Philippine history. She was
married to Fulgencio Ramos with whom she had six children. In
1896, the Katipuneros of Andres Bonifacio declared
war on her land against the Spaniards. Secret
meeting of the Katipuneros were held at her house, and she
tended Filipinos who managed to escape by dressing their wounds,
feeding them, and hiding them from the Spaniards. Soon,
the Spaniards learned about her cause and the underground
meetings, and she was exiled to Marianas along with
171 Filipinos charged with rebellion.
In 1903, she came back under the American regime. On
March 2, 1919, she died, at the age of 107. She
was called the "Mother of the Philippine Revolution."
was born in Bigaa, central Bulacan. Balagtas labored
under strict friar supervision. Themes had to fall under
the constraints of official religious themes in recommended
meter and structure. He took all obstacles on, settling
on allegorical poetry as the medium to carry his message.
With meter and metaphor approval, he ushered Tagalog into
the realms of protest against tyranny. The friars thought
that Florante at Laura, his best known work, was about
Christians and Moors duelling in mythical kingdoms to the
correct ending. The metre was fine; there was even music
to it. In reality, he depicted the injustices Filipinos suffered
in the hands of the Spaniards, and the evils that beset them
during the Spanish regime. This poem contained ideals
from which people of today can deduce morals. Thus,
it is considered one of the best poems, and Balagtas is known
as the "King of Tagalog Poems."